Health psychology is a specialty area that focuses on how biology, psychology, behavior, and social factors influence health and illness. Other terms such as medical psychology and behavioral medicine are sometimes used interchangeably with the term health psychology.
Health and illness are influenced by a wide variety of factors. While contagious and hereditary illnesses are common, many behavioral and psychological factors can impact overall physical well-being and various medical conditions.
An Overview of Health Psychology
Health psychology is a field of psychology focused on promoting health as well as the prevention and treatment of disease and illness. Health psychologists also focus on understanding how people react to, cope with, and recover from illness. Some health psychologists work to improve the health care system and the government's approach to health care policy.
Division 38 of the American Psychological Association is devoted to health psychology. According to the division, their focus is on a better understanding of health and illness, studying the psychological factors that impact health, and contributing to the health care system and health policy.
The field of health psychology emerged in the 1970s to address the rapidly changing field of healthcare. Today, life expectancy in the U.S. is around 80 years, and the leading causes of mortality are chronic diseases often linked to lifestyle. Health psychology helps address these changes in health.
By looking at the patterns of behavior that underlie disease and death, health psychologists hope to help people live better, and healthier, lives.
How Is Health Psychology Unique?
Because health psychology emphasizes how behavior influences health, it is well-positioned to help people change the behaviors that contribute to health and well-being. Examples of health psychology in action would be researchers conducting applied research on how to prevent unhealthy behaviors such as smoking or to find new ways to encourage healthy actions such as exercising.
For example, while most people realize that eating a diet high in sugar is not good for their health, many people continue to engage in such behaviors regardless of the possible short-term and long-term consequences. Health psychologists look at the psychological factors that influence these health choices and explore ways to motivate people to make better health choices.
Importance of Health Psychology
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control's National Center for Health Statistics compiles data regarding death in the nation and its causes. Congruent with data trends throughout this century, nearly half of all deaths in the United States can be linked to behaviors or other risk factors that are mostly preventable.
In the CDC's 2012 report, the rate of death had declined for all leading causes except suicide. Life expectancy was also at an all-time high (78.8 years), yet about 83 Americans die from heart disease and stroke every hour. And more than a quarter of those deaths are preventable.
Cancer deaths were second, followed by chronic lower respiratory diseases—primarily chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis. COPD was followed by drug poisonings, including overdoses , then fatal falls among an increasingly elder population.
Current Issues in Health Psychology
Health psychologists work with individuals, groups, and communities to decrease risk factors, improve overall health, and reduce illness. They conduct research and provide services in areas including:
- Stress reduction
- Weight management
- Smoking cessation
- Improving daily nutrition
- Reducing risky sexual behaviors
- Hospice care and grief counseling
- Preventing illness
- Understanding the effects of illness
- Improving recovery
- Teaching coping skills
The Biosocial Model in Health Psychology
Today, the main approach used in health psychology is known as the biosocial model. According to this view, illness and health are the results of a combination of biological, psychological, and social factors.
- Biological factors include inherited personality traits and genetic conditions.
- Psychological factors involve lifestyle, personality characteristics, and stress levels.
- Social factors include such things as social support systems , family relationships, and cultural beliefs.
Health Psychology in Practice
Health psychology is a rapidly growing field. As increasing numbers of people seek to take control of their own health, more and more people are seeking health-related information and resources. Health psychologists are focused on educating people about their own health and well-being, so they are perfectly suited to fill this rising demand.
Many health psychologists work specifically in the area of prevention, focusing on helping people stop health problems before they start.
This may include helping people maintain a healthy weight, avoid unhealthy or risky behaviors , and maintain a positive outlook that can combat stress, depression, and anxiety.
Another way that health psychologists can help is by educating and training other health professionals. By incorporating knowledge from health psychology, physicians, nurses, nutritionists, and other health practitioners can better incorporate psychological approaches into how they treat patients.
Branches of Health Psychology
Individuals who are interested in a health psychology career can choose to work in a specific branch of this field. Four main branches of health psychology are:
- Clinical health psychology : This health psychology branch involves working with individuals, helping them make lifestyle changes for better health.
- Community health psychology : Health psychology workers can also work with entire communities, such as studying diseases that are common in certain communities and the causes behind them.
- Occupational health psychology : This branch of health psychology focuses on how a person's job can affect their health, in addition to finding ways to promote employee health within work environments.
- Public health psychology : Another option for health psychology professionals is to work in a position that studies and/or is able to influence policies and programs designed to promote the health of the public as a whole.
A Word From Verywell
If you are struggling to make healthy changes in your life , dealing with the onset of illness, or facing some other type of health problem, seeing a health psychologist is one way to help start you off on the right foot. By consulting with one of these professionals, you can gain access to support and resources designed to help you cope with your illness and achieve your health goals.
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